2Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, UMR 217 CNRS, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, BP6, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received April 28, 2007
The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) protein plays a central role in base excision repair (BER) interacting with and modulating activity of key BER proteins. To estimate the influence of XRCC1 on interactions of BER proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), and DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) with DNA intermediates, photoaffinity labeling using different photoreactive DNA was carried out in the presence or absence of XRCC1. XRCC1 competes with APE1, FEN1, and PARP1 for DNA binding, while Pol beta increases the efficiency of XRCC1 modification. To study the interactions of XRCC1 with DNA and proteins at the initial stages of BER, DNA duplexes containing a photoreactive group in the template strand opposite the damage were designed. DNA duplexes with 8-oxoguanine or dihydrothymine opposite the photoreactive group were recognized and cleaved by specific DNA glycosylases (OGG1 or NTH1, correspondingly), although the rate of oxidized base excision in the photoreactive structures was lower than in normal substrates. XRCC1 does not display any specificity in recognition of DNA duplexes with damaged bases compared to regular DNA. A photoreactive group opposite a synthetic apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site (3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran) weakly influences the incision efficiency of AP site analog by APE1. In the absence of magnesium ions, i.e. when incision of AP sites cannot occur, APE1 and XRCC1 compete for DNA binding when present together. However, in the presence of magnesium ions the level of XRCC1 modification increased upon APE1 addition, since APE1 creates nicked DNA duplex, which interacts with XRCC1 more efficiently.
KEY WORDS: XRCC1, base excision repair, photoaffinity labeling technique