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Received April 9, 2010
The proteins of the 14-3-3 family are universal adapters participating in multiple processes running in the cell. We describe the structure, isoform composition, and distribution of 14-3-3 proteins in different tissues. Different elements of 14-3-3 structure important for dimer formation and recognition of protein targets are analyzed in detail. Special attention is paid to analysis of posttranslational modifications playing important roles in regulation of 14-3-3 function. The data of the literature concerning participation of 14-3-3 in regulation of intercellular contacts and different elements of cytoskeleton formed by microfilaments are analyzed. We also describe participation of 14-3-3 in regulation of small G-proteins and protein kinases important for proper functioning of cytoskeleton. The data on the interaction of 14-3-3 with different components of microtubules are presented, and the probable role of 14-3-3 in developing of certain neurodegenerative diseases is discussed. The data of the literature concerning the role of 14-3-3 in formation and normal functioning of intermediate filaments are also reviewed. It is concluded that due to its adapter properties 14-3-3 plays an important role in cytoskeleton regulation. The cytoskeletal proteins that are abundant in the cell might compete with the other protein targets of 14-3-3 and therefore can indirectly regulate many intracellular processes that are dependent on 14-3-3.
KEY WORDS: 14-3-3, phosphorylation, cytoskeleton