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REVIEW: Biochemical Polymorphism of the Growth Hormone System Proteins and Its Manifestations in Human Prostate Cells

S. S. Shishkin*, K. V. Lisitskaya, and I. N. Krakhmaleva

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, 119071 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: shishkin@inbi.ras.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received January 12, 2010; Revision received March 11, 2010
The basic mechanisms are considered that are responsible for producing biochemical polymorphism of human proteins realized at three basic levels: the structures of genome and genes; the transcription and maturation of transcripts; the postsynthetic formation of functionally active protein products of gene expression. The data on biochemical polymorphism of growth hormone (GH) and some other proteins that are directly or indirectly necessary for its functioning and support this polymorphism by polylocus, polyallelism, alternative splicing, and various postsynthetic modifications are analyzed. The role of polymorphic proteins of the GH system is discussed in formation of a variety of oligomeric molecular structures of this system (multicomponent transport complexes, receptors, and endocellular protein ensembles involved in the regulation of gene expression). It is emphasized that such structural polymorphism significantly influences the biological effects in various parts of the GH system during physiological processes and in tumors, in particular in prostate cancer.
KEY WORDS: biochemical polymorphism, growth hormone system, prostate cancer

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297910130043