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REVIEW: Activated Leukemic Oncogenes AML1-ETO and c-kit: Role in Development of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Current Approaches for Their Inhibition

A. V. Rulina*, P. V. Spirin, and V. S. Prassolov

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 32, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: rulinaura@mail.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received June 3, 2010; Revision received July 24, 2010
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant blood disease caused by different mutations that enhance the proliferative activity and survival of blood cells and affect their differentiation and apoptosis. The most frequent disorders in AML are translocations between chromosomes 21 and 8 leading to production of a chimeric oncogene, AML1-ETO, and hyperexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Mutations in these genes often occur jointly. The presence in cells of two activated oncogenes is likely to trigger their malignization. The current approaches for treatment of oncologic diseases (bone marrow transplantation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have significant shortcomings, and thus many laboratories are intensively developing new approaches against leukemias. Inhibiting expression of activated leukemic oncogenes based on the principle of RNA interference seems to be a promising approach in this field.
KEY WORDS: acute myeloid leukemia (AML), leukemic oncogenes, AML1-ETO, c-kit, RNA interference

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297910130092