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Proteasomes in the Brain of β2-Microglobulin Knockout Mice

Yu. V. Lyupina1*, M. E. Bogatyrev1, A. Sh. Orlova1, E. V. Marjukhnich2, D. B. Kazansky2, and N. P. Sharova1

1Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 26, 119334 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7 (499) 135-8012; E-mail: yulial@bk.ru

2Blokhin Russian Oncological Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kashirskoe Shosse 23, 115478 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7 (495) 324-1205; E-mail: kazansky1@yandex.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 13, 2013
MHC class I molecules play an important role in synaptic plasticity of the mammalian nervous system. Proteolytic complexes (proteasomes) produce oligopeptides that are presented on cell surfaces in complexes with MHC class I molecules and regulate many cellular processes beside this. The goal of the present work was to study peculiarities in functioning of proteasomes and associated signaling pathways along with evaluation of NeuN and gFAP expression in different sections of the brain in mice with knockout of β2-microglobulin, a constituent of MHC class I molecules. It was found that the frontal cortex and the brainstem, structures with different ratio of NeuN and gFAP expression, are characterized by opposite changes in the proteasome pool under constant total proteasome levels in B2m-knockout mice in comparison with those in control animals. ChTL-activity as well as expression of LMP7 immune subunit and PA28 regulator of proteasomes was elevated in the cortex of B2m-knockout mice, while these indicators were decreased in the brainstem. The concentrations of the signaling molecules nNOS and HSP70 in B2m-knockout mice were increased in the cortex, while being decreased in the brainstem, and this indicates the possibility of control of expression of the LMP7 subunit and the regulator PA28 by these molecules. Changes in the proteasome pool observed in striatum of B2m-knockout mice are similar to those observed in the brainstem. At the same time, the cerebellum is characterized by a specific pattern of proteasome functioning in comparison with that in all other brain structures. In cerebellum the expression of immune subunits LMP7 and LMP2 and the regulator PA28 was increased, while expression of regulator PA700 was decreased. Deficiency of NeuN and gFAP was revealed in most brain compartments of B2m-knockout mice. Thus, increased expression of the above-mentioned immune subunits and the proteasome regulator PA28 in the cortex and cerebellum may compensate disturbances revealed in the brain structures and the absence of MHC class I molecules. Apparently, this promotes production of peptides necessary for cell-to-cell interactions and maintains nervous system plasticity in B2m-knockout mice.
KEY WORDS: immune proteasomes, proteasome regulators, proteasome activity, major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, synaptic plasticity, brain, β2-microglobulin knockout mice

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913100064