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REVIEW: Hypochlorous Acid as a Precursor of Free Radicals in Living Systems

O. M. Panasenko1,2*, I. V. Gorudko3, and A. V. Sokolov1,4

1Research Institute of Physico-Chemical Medicine, Malaya Pirogovskaya str. 1a, 119435 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: o-panas@mail.ru

2Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova str. 1, 117997 Moscow, Russia

3Department of Biophysics, Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosti Avenue 4, 220050 Minsk, Belarus

4Institute of Experimental Medicine, North West Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Akademika Pavlova str. 12, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received December 12, 2012; Revision received June 19, 2013
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced in the human body by the family of mammalian heme peroxidases, mainly by myeloperoxidase, which is secreted by neutrophils and monocytes at sites of inflammation. This review discusses the reactions that occur between HOCl and the major classes of biologically important molecules (amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and inorganic substances) to form free radicals. The generation of such free radical intermediates by HOCl and other reactive halogen species is accompanied by the development of halogenative stress, which causes a number of socially important diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, infectious, and other diseases usually associated with inflammatory response and characterized by the appearance of biomarkers of myeloperoxidase and halogenative stress. Investigations aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating the activity of enzyme systems that are responsible for the production of reactive halogen species are a crucial step in opening possibilities for control of the development of the body’s inflammatory response.
KEY WORDS: myeloperoxidase, hypochlorous acid, free radicals, reactive halogen species, halogenative stress, biomarker of myeloperoxidase, inflammation

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913130075