2Hamdard University, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Department of Pathology, New Delhi, India
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received June 30, 2015; Revision received November 24, 2015
Glycation-induced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modification by aldehydes can result in loss of its antiinflammatory/antioxidative properties, contributing to diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases. Isoferulic acid, a major active ingredient of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, shows antiinflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. Thus, this study investigated the antiglycation effect of isoferulic acid against compositional modifications of HDL and loss of biological activity of HDL-paraoxonase induced on incubation with different aldehydes. Protective effect of isoferulic acid was assessed by subjecting purified HDL from human plasma to glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal, or glycolaldehyde and varying concentrations of isoferulic acid. The effect of isoferulic acid was analyzed by determining amino group number, tryptophan and advanced glycation end-product fluorescence, thermal denaturation studies, carboxymethyl lysine content, and activity of HDL-paraoxonase. Concentration-dependent inhibitory action of isoferulic acid was observed against extensive structural perturbations, decrease in amino group number, increase in carboxymethyl lysine content, and decrease in the activity of HDL-paraoxonase caused by aldehyde-associated glycation in the HDL molecule. Isoferulic acid, when taken in concentration equal to that of aldehydes, was most protective, as 82-88% of paraoxonase activity was retained for all studied aldehydes. Isoferulic acid shows antiglycation action against aldehyde-associated glycation in HDL, which indicates its therapeutic potential for diabetic patients, especially those with micro-/macrovascular complications.
KEY WORDS: aldehydes, glycation, high-density lipoprotein-AGEs, isoferulic acid, paraoxonase