2Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received November 17, 2015; Revision received March 16, 2016
Structural and functional impairments of mitochondria in brain tissues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cause energy deficiency, increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and premature neuronal death. However, the causal relations between accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying deleterious effects of both these factors in sporadic AD, the most common form in humans, remain unknown. Here we used olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice of NMRI strain as a model for sporadic AD. Five weeks after surgery, the OBX mice developed major behavioral and biochemical features of AD neurodegeneration, including spatial memory loss, increased brain levels of Aβ, and energy deficiency. Mitochondria isolated from the neocortex and hippocampus of OBX mice displayed severe functional impairments, such as low NADH oxidation rate, reduced transmembrane potential, and decreased cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity that correlated with high levels of soluble Aβ1-40. Mitochondria from OBX mice showed increased contents of lipid peroxidation products, indicative of the development of oxidative stress. We found that neurodegeneration caused by olfactory bulbectomy is accompanied by energy metabolism disturbances and oxidative stress in brain mitochondria similar to those occurring in transgenic animals – familial AD models and patients with sporadic AD. Therefore, OBX mice can serve as a valid AD model for investigating the mechanisms of AD neurodegeneration, drug testing, and development of therapeutic strategies for AD treatment.
KEY WORDS: Alzheimer’s disease, olfactory bulbectomized mice, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress