2Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: email@example.com
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received June 29, 2017; Revision received August 1, 2017
This review considers the state-of-the-art on mechanisms and alternative pathways of electron transfer in photosynthetic electron transport chains of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. The mechanisms of electron transport control between photosystems (PS) I and II and the Calvin–Benson cycle are considered. The redistribution of electron fluxes between the noncyclic, cyclic, and pseudocyclic pathways plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthesis. Mathematical modeling of light-induced electron transport processes is considered. Particular attention is given to the electron transfer reactions on the acceptor side of PS I and to interactions of PS I with exogenous acceptors, including molecular oxygen. A kinetic model of PS I and its interaction with exogenous electron acceptors has been developed. This model is based on experimental kinetics of charge recombination in isolated PS I. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the electron transfer reactions in PS I are scrutinized. The free energies of electron transfer between quinone acceptors A1A/A1B in the symmetric redox cofactor branches of PS I and iron–sulfur clusters FX, FA, and FB have been estimated. The second-order rate constants of electron transfer from PS I to external acceptors have been determined. The data suggest that byproduct formation of superoxide radical in PS I due to the reduction of molecular oxygen in the A1 site (Mehler reaction) can exceed 0.3% of the total electron flux in PS I.
KEY WORDS: photosystem I, electron transport, kinetic modeling of electron transfer, exogenous electron acceptors, interaction with oxygen