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REVIEW: The Ribosome as an Allosterically Regulated Molecular Machine

T. M. Makarova1,2 and A. A. Bogdanov1,2*

1Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: bogdanov@belozersky.msu.ru

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, 119991 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received August 16, 2017
The ribosome as a complex molecular machine undergoes significant conformational rearrangements during the synthesis of polypeptide chains of proteins. In this review, information obtained using various experimental methods on the internal consistency of such rearrangements is discussed. It is demonstrated that allosteric regulation involves all the main stages of the operation of the ribosome and connects functional elements remote by tens and even hundreds of angstroms. Data obtained using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) show that translocation is controlled in general by internal mechanisms of the ribosome, and not by the position of the ligands. Chemical probing data revealed the relationship of such remote sites as the decoding, peptidyl transferase, and GTPase centers of the ribosome. Nevertheless, despite the large amount of experimental data accumulated to date, many details and mechanisms of these phenomena are still not understood. Analysis of these data demonstrates that the development of new approaches is necessary for deciphering the mechanisms of allosteric regulation of the operation of the ribosome.
KEY WORDS: ribosome, allostery, allosteric regulation, tRNA, rRNA

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297917130016