2LIA1066 “Laboratoire Franco–Russe de Recherche en Oncologie”, 94805 Villejuif, France
3Laboratoire d’Hématologie Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Aristide Le Dantec, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal
4Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
5Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
6Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unité (U) 1009, Université Paris Sud, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
7Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
# These authors contributed equally to this work.
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received November 10, 2017; Revision received December 8, 2017
Chromosomal translocations have long been known for their association with malignant transformation, particularly in hematopoietic disorders such as B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the physiological process of maturation, which creates double strand breaks in immunoglobulin gene loci, environmental factors including the Epstein–Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses, malaria-causing parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), and plant components (Euphorbia tirucalli latex) can trigger a reorganization of the nuclear architecture and DNA damage that together will facilitate the occurrence of deleterious chromosomal rearrangements.
KEY WORDS: Burkitt lymphoma, EBV, HIV, Plasmodium falciparum, Euphorbia tirucalli, oncogenesis, nuclear organization