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Glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase Alpha-Subunit Alters Enzyme Conformation and Sensitivity to Trypsinolysis

E. A. Dergousova1,2, Y. M. Poluektov1, E. A. Klimanova1,2, I. Y. Petrushanko1, V. A. Mitkevich1, A. A. Makarov1, and O. D. Lopina1,2,a*

1Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, 119234 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received December 9, 2017; Revision received April 13, 2018
We found earlier that Na,K-ATPase is purified from duck salt glands in partially glutathionylated state (up to 13 of the 23 cysteine residues of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic α-subunit can be S-glutathionylated). To determine the effect of glutathionylation on the enzyme conformation, we have analyzed the products of trypsinolysis of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in different conformations with different extent of glutathionylation. Incubation of the protein in the E1 conformation with trypsin produced a large fragment with a molecular mass (MM) of 80 kDa with the following formation of smaller fragments with MM 40, 35.5, and 23 kDa. Tryptic digestion of Na,K-ATPase in the E2 conformation also resulted in the generation of the fragments with MM 40, 35.5, and 23 kDa. Deglutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit increases the rate of proteolysis of the enzyme in both E1 and E2 conformations. The pattern of tryptic digestion of the α-subunit in E2 conformation additionally glutathionylated with oxidized glutathione is similar to that of partially deglutathionylated Na,K-ATPase. The pattern of tryptic digestion of the additionally glutathionylated α-subunit in E1 conformation is similar to that of the native enzyme. The highest rate of trypsinolysis was observed for the α-subunit in complex with ouabain (E2-OBN conformation). Additional glutathionylation increased the content of high-molecular-weight fragments among the digestion products, as compared to the native and deglutathionylated enzymes. The data obtained were confirmed using molecular modeling that revealed that number of sites accessible for trypsinolysis is higher in the E2P-OBN conformation than in the E1- and E2-conformations and that glutathionylation decreases the number of sites accessible for trypsin. Therefore, glutathionylation affects enzyme conformation and its sensitivity to trypsinolysis. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in the Na,K-ATPase sensitivity to trypsinolysis depending on the level of enzyme glutathionylation and increase in the enzyme sensitivity to proteolysis upon its binding to ouabain, as well as physiological role of these phenomena are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Na,K-ATPase, glutathionylation, trypsinolysis

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297918080084