2Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received December 6, 2017; Revision received June 8, 2018
H+-FOF1-ATP synthase (F-ATPase, F-type ATPase, FOF1 complex) catalyzes ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate in eubacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some archaea. ATP synthesis is powered by the transmembrane proton transport driven by the proton motive force (PMF) generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chains. When the PMF is decreased or absent, ATP synthase catalyzes the reverse reaction, working as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The ATPase activity of the enzyme is regulated by several mechanisms, of which the most conserved is the non-competitive inhibition by the MgADP complex (ADP-inhibition). When ADP binds to the catalytic site without phosphate, the enzyme may undergo conformational changes that lock bound ADP, resulting in enzyme inactivation. PMF can induce release of inhibitory ADP and reactivate ATP synthase; the threshold PMF value required for enzyme reactivation might exceed the PMF for ATP synthesis. Moreover, membrane energization increases the catalytic site affinity to phosphate, thereby reducing the probability of ADP binding without phosphate and preventing enzyme transition to the ADP-inhibited state. Besides phosphate, oxyanions (e.g., sulfite and bicarbonate), alcohols, lauryldimethylamine oxide, and a number of other detergents can weaken ADP-inhibition and increase ATPase activity of the enzyme. In this paper, we review the data on ADP-inhibition of ATP synthases from different organisms and discuss the in vivo role of this phenomenon and its relationship with other regulatory mechanisms, such as ATPase activity inhibition by subunit ε and nucleotide binding in the noncatalytic sites of the enzyme. It should be noted that in Escherichia coli enzyme, ADP-inhibition is relatively weak and rather enhanced than prevented by phosphate.
KEY WORDS: ATP synthase, F-ATPase, ADP-inhibition, regulation, LDAO, sulfite, bioenergetics, FOF1, proton-motive force, phosphate, ATP hydrolysis