2Apto-Pharm Ltd., 115564 Moscow, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, 119234 Moscow, Russia
4Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Molecular Medicine, 119991 Moscow, Russia
5Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
6Burdenko National Scientific and Practical Center for Neurosurgery, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 125047 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received December 26, 2017; Revision received May 7, 2018
Aptamers are widely used as molecular recognition elements for detecting and blocking functional biological molecules. Since the common “alphabet” of DNA and RNA consists of only four letters, the chemical diversity of aptamers is less than the diversity of protein recognition elements built of 20 amino acids. Chemical modification of nucleotides enlarges the potential of DNA/RNA aptamers. This review describes the latest achievements in a variety of approaches to aptamers selection with an extended genetic alphabet.
KEY WORDS: aptamers, modified nucleotides, mod-SELEX