2Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
4Joint-Stock Scientific Production Association Bioran, 119261 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received June 5, 2017; Revision received July 9, 2017
We analyzed the structural properties of the peptide hormone insulin and described the mechanism of its physiological action, as well as effects of insulin in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Recently published data on the development of novel insulin preparations based on combining molecular design and genetic engineering approaches are presented. New strategies for creation of long-acting insulin analogs, the mechanisms of functioning of these analogs and their structure are discussed. Side effects of insulin preparations are described, including amyloidogenesis and possible mitogenic effect. The pathways for development of novel insulin analogs are outlined with regard to the current requirements for therapeutic preparations due to the wider occurrence of diabetes of both types.
KEY WORDS: insulin analogs, diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, glycemic control, insulin fibrils