* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received March 25, 2020; Revised June 10, 2020; Accepted June 27, 2020
For a long time asthma was commonly considered as a homogeneous disease. However, recent studies provide increasing evidence of its heterogeneity and existence of different phenotypes of the disease. Currently, classification of asthma into several phenotypes is based on clinical and physiological features, anamnesis, and response to therapy. This review describes five most frequently identified asthma phenotypes. Neutrophilic asthma (NA) deserves special attention, since neutrophilic inflammation of the lungs is closely associated with severity of the disease and with the resistance to conventional corticosteroid therapy. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms of neutrophilic asthma pathogenesis and on the role of Th1- and Th17-cells in the development of this type of asthma. In addition, this review presents current knowledge of neutrophil biology. It has been established that human neutrophils are represented by at least three subpopulations with different biological functions. Therefore, total elimination of neutrophils from the lungs can result in negative consequences. Based on the new knowledge of NA pathogenesis and biology of neutrophils, the review summarizes current approaches for treatment of neutrophilic asthma and suggests new promising ways to treat this type of asthma that could be developed in future.
KEY WORDS: asthma phenotypes, Th17-cells, neutrophils