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REVIEW: Nonphosphorylating Oxidation in Mitochondria and Related Processes

D. B. Zorov1,2,a*, N. V. Andrianova1, V. A. Babenko1,2, L. E. Bakeeva1, S. D. Zorov3, L. D. Zorova1,2, I. B. Pevsner1,2, V. A. Popkov1,2, E. Yu. Plotnikov1,2,4, and D. N. Silachev1,2

1Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, 117997 Moscow, Russia

3Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

4Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Molecular Medicine, 119991 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received July 28, 2020; Revised September 17, 2020; Accepted September 17, 2020
The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation and its regulation remain one of the main problems of bioenergetics. Efficiency of the mitochondrial energization is determined by the relationship between the rate of generation of electrochemical potential of hydrogen ions and the rate of its expenditure on the synthesis of ATP and the use of ATP in endergonic reactions. Uncoupling (partial or complete), which occurs in the process of uncontrolled and controlled leakage of ions through the inner mitochondrial membrane, on the one hand leads to the decrease in the relative synthesis of ATP, and on the other, being consistent with the law of conservation of energy, leads to the formation of heat, generation of which is an essential function of the organism. In addition to increased thermogenesis, the increase of non-phosphorylating oxidation of various substrates is accompanied by the decrease in transmembrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and activation of oxygen consumption, water and carbon dioxide production, increase in the level of intracellular ADP and acidification of the cytosol. In this analysis, each of these factors will be considered separately for its role in regulating metabolism.
KEY WORDS: mitochondria, water, thermogenesis, swelling, bioenergetics, uncoupling

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920120093