2Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 22, 2020; Revised September 22, 2020; Accepted October 9, 2020
Ion-translocating ATPases and ATP synthases (F-, V-, A-type ATPases, and several P-type ATPases and ABC-transporters) catalyze ATP hydrolysis or ATP synthesis coupled with the ion transport across the membrane. F-, V-, and A-ATPases are protein nanomachines that combine transmembrane transport of protons or sodium ions with ATP synthesis/hydrolysis by means of a rotary mechanism. These enzymes are composed of two multisubunit subcomplexes that rotate relative to each other during catalysis. Rotary ATPases phosphorylate/dephosphorylate nucleotides directly, without the generation of phosphorylated protein intermediates. F-type ATPases are found in chloroplasts, mitochondria, most eubacteria, and in few archaea. V-type ATPases are eukaryotic enzymes present in a variety of cellular membranes, including the plasma membrane, vacuoles, late endosomes, and trans-Golgi cisternae. A-type ATPases are found in archaea and some eubacteria. F- and A-ATPases have two main functions: ATP synthesis powered by the proton motive force (pmf) or, in some prokaryotes, sodium-motive force (smf) and generation of the pmf or smf at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In prokaryotes, both functions may be vitally important, depending on the environment and the presence of other enzymes capable of pmf or smf generation. In eukaryotes, the primary and the most crucial function of F-ATPases is ATP synthesis. Eukaryotic V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps that generate pmf necessary for the transmembrane transport of ions and metabolites and are vitally important for pH regulation. This review describes the diversity of rotary ion-translocating ATPases from different organisms and compares the structural, functional, and regulatory features of these enzymes.
KEY WORDS: ATP synthase, F-ATPase, A-ATPase, V-ATPase, intracellular ATP, proton-translocating ATPase, regulation